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    语法框架下言语行为语用功能

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    内容提示: 硕士学位论文 语法框架下言语行为语用功能语法框架下言语行为语用功能 PRAGMATIC FUNCTIONS OF SPEECH ACTS IN GRAMMATICAL FRAMEWORK 方静 哈尔滨工业大学 2014 年 7 月 3 日万方数据 国内图书分类号:H314 国际图书分类号:802.0 文学硕士学位论文 语法框架下言语行为语用功能 硕 士 研 究 生 : 方静 导 师 : 乔梦铎教授 申 请 学 位: 文学硕士 学 科 、 专 业 : 外国语言学及应用语言学 所 在 单 位: 外国语学院 答 辩 日 期: 2014 年 7 月 3 日 授予学位单位: 哈尔滨工...

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    硕士学位论文 语法框架下言语行为语用功能语法框架下言语行为语用功能 PRAGMATIC FUNCTIONS OF SPEECH ACTS IN GRAMMATICAL FRAMEWORK 方静 哈尔滨工业大学 2014 年 7 月 3 日万方数据 国内图书分类号:H314 国际图书分类号:802.0 文学硕士学位论文 语法框架下言语行为语用功能 硕 士 研 究 生 : 方静 导 师 : 乔梦铎教授 申 请 学 位: 文学硕士 学 科 、 专 业 : 外国语言学及应用语言学 所 在 单 位: 外国语学院 答 辩 日 期: 2014 年 7 月 3 日 授予学位单位: 哈尔滨工业大学 万方数据 Classified Index: H314 U.D.C: 802.0 Graduation Thesis for the M.A. Degree PRAGMATIC FUNCTIONS OF SPEECH ACTS IN GRAMMATICAL FRAMEWORK Candidate: Fang Jing Supervisor: Prof. QIAO Mengduo Academic Degree Applied for: Master of Arts Specialty: Foreign Linguistics and Applied Linguistics Affiliation: School of Foreign Languages Date of Oral Examination: July 3, 2014 Degree Conferring Institution : Harbin Institute of Technology 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - i - 摘要摘要 言语行为在人的们的日常交际中扮演着重要的角色。如果言语行为不能被恰当地理解和使用,可能产生不必要的误解。由此,一些专家学者已从不同的角度对言语行为进行了广泛和深入的研究,但是从语法角度对言语行为的语用功能进行研究的还不是很多。因此本篇文章的作者尝试从语法角度对言语行为进行研究。试图探究言语行为在日常的交际中相对规范的表现。言语行为是由美国语言哲学家奥斯汀于 1962 年在其著作“如何以言行事”中提出来的。奥斯汀的言语行为理论强调言外行为理论的分类.他将言外行分为五类, 分别是裁决型、行使型、承诺型、行为型、阐述型。但此分类理论具有相对明显的缺限,因此并没有得到语言研究者广泛的接受和认可。赛尔继承和发展了言语行为的理论与研究。赛尔对言语行为的分类将言语行为理论更加系统化、规范化及相对科学化。赛尔对言语行为的分类在从语法角度分析言语行为的语用功能方面对本论文在理论上的指导和借鉴发挥了重要的作用。 基于上述的言语行为理论以及对言语行为的分类, 本论文在语法的框架下对言语行为进行了论述和研究。论文首先从句子类型层面,也就是基于不同类型的句子角度讨论了实现言语行为的方式。包括陈述句,疑问句,祈使句和感叹句。在此部分作者从六个方面列举了一些代表性的句子说明了在表达言语行为方面句子类型体现的形式及实现语言行为的实际过程和方式。其次,作者分别从情态动词和非情态动词等四个方面讨论了实现语言行为的方式,也就是从词的层面和角度论述了实现言语行为的方式;从句子结构和词汇层面展开广泛的讨论,充分的证明了言语行为在语法框架下的语用功能的实现过程。 论文最后的结论部分作者对先前章节进行了扼要的总结和概括。得出通过句子和词汇实现语法框架下的言语行为的方式和表现形式的之外,礼貌也是成功实现言语行为的一个重要因素。因此,适当的了解、正确的理解和运用上述的语言行为对于成功、和谐和体面的交流会起到一定的借鉴和帮助作用,尽量避免在实际的交际中产生的不必要的误解和麻烦 关键词关键词:言语行为;语法框架;从句类型;情态动词;非情态动词 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - ii - Abstract Speech acts play an important part in human being’s daily communication. If speech acts could not be properly understood and used, unnecessary misunderstanding may occur. Although many linguists and scholars have studied speech act theory in different aspects, studying of the pragmatic functions of the speech acts in the grammatical framework is rare. Therefore the author of this paper intends to study it from the perspective of grammars. John L.Austin’s speech acts discussed the classification of the illocutionary act. He divided the speech act theory into five parts which are verdictives, exercitives, commissives, behabitives and expositives. But because the classification of his lacked some obvious limitations, therefore it was not widely received and recognized by many linguists and scholars. Searle later modified and developed the theory of speech acts. He made the classification of speech acts more scientific, systematic and specific. Searle’s theory of speech acts and his classification of illocutionary, which, in fact, play an important part in the analysis of the pragmatic functions of the speech acts in the grammatical framework. Based on the speech act theory and the classification of it, the author of this paper discussed the pragmatic functions of speech acts in the grammatical framework. Ways of realizing the speech acts from the perspective of clause types are listed, including: declarative, interrogative imperative and exclamations. Some examples are used to explain how the clause types function when speech acts are performed. In chapter five, the ways and phenomenon of realizing speech acts are analyzed from the perspective of modal verbs and non-modal verbs. In the conclusion of the thesis, a conclusion about the previous chapters is briefly given. Normally, the ways to perform speech acts are clause types, modal verbs and non-modal verbs successively. Apart from those mentioned above, politeness is also a very important part of realizing speech acts. Understanding different ways of realizing speech acts is of great importance for the successful and 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - iii - harmonious communication. Speech acts should be properly understood in order to avoid the unnecessary misunderstanding in our communication. Key words: speech act; grammatical framework; clause type; modal verb; non-modal verb 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - iv - Contents 摘要摘要 .................................................................................................................................................. i Abstract ....................................................................................................................................... ii Chapter 1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Objectives of the Research ........................................................................................... 2 1.2Significance of the Research ......................................................................................... 2 1.3Structure of the Research ............................................................................................... 3 Chapter 2 Literature Review ......................................................................................... 4 2.1The Study of Speech Acts at Home ............................................................................. 4 2.1.1The Study of Speech Acts in Linguistics and Literature .............................. 5 2.1.2 The Study of Speech Acts in Other Fields ..................................................... 6 2.2 The Study of Speech Acts Abroad .............................................................................. 7 Chapter 3 Theoretical Framework .......................................................................... 10 3.1 Austin’s Speech Act Theory .................................................................................... 10 3.1.1 Locutionary Acts ............................................................................................... 12 3.1.2Illocutionary Acts ............................................................................................... 13 3.1.3Perlocutionary Acts ............................................................................................ 16 3.2 John Searle’s Speech Act Theory .......................................................................... 17 3.2.1 Classification of Illocutionary Acts ............................................................... 18 3.2.2 Indirect Speech Acts ......................................................................................... 21 3.3 Other Scholar’s Viewpoint of Speech Acts .......................................................... 22 Chapter 4 Ways of Realizing Pragmatic Functions of Speech Acts From the Perspective of Clause Types ................................................................... 24 4.1Declarative Clause Serving as Questions ................................................................. 26 4.2Declarative Clause as Directives ................................................................................ 27 4.3Declarative Clause as Requests .................................................................................. 28 4.4Imperative Clauses as Invitations .............................................................................. 29 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - v - 4.5Interrogative Clauses as Exclamations ............................................................ 29 4.6 Interrogative Clauses of Modal Verbs as Directives ............................................. 30 Chapter 5 Ways of Realizing Pragmatic Functions of Speech Acts from the perspective of Modal and Non-modal Verbs ................................. 32 5.1Modal Verbs and Speech Acts .................................................................................... 32 5.1.1 Modal Verbs and Directives .................................................................. 33 5.1.1.1 Commands and Instructions ............................................................................ 33 5.1.1.2Permissions and Prohibitions ................................................................... 36 5.1.1.3Warnings and Suggestions ............................................................. 40 5.1.1.4 Requests and Advice ..................................................................... 44 5.1.2Modal Verbs and Commissions ............................................................................. 47 5.1.2.1 Promises and Undertakings ........................................................................... 47 5.1.2.2 Invitations ...................................................................................................... 48 5.1.2.3 Offers ............................................................................................................. 49 5.1.3 Modal Verbs and Representatives ................................................................. 52 5.2Non-Modal Verbs and Speech Acts ........................................................................... 53 5.2.1Non-modal Expression and Speech Acts ...................................................... 53 5.2.2Speech Act Verbs ............................................................................................... 55 5.2.2.1Performative Verbs ......................................................................................... 56 5.2.2.2Reporting Verbs .............................................................................................. 56 5.3Other Speech Acts ......................................................................................................... 57 5.3.1 Syntactic Structures Contributing to Politeness ......................................... 58 5.3.2Tense and Aspect ................................................................................................ 58 Chapter 6 Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 60 6.1Major Findings ............................................................................................................... 60 6.2 Limitations ..................................................................................................................... 62 References ................................................................................................................................ 63 Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................. 67 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - vi - 哈尔滨工业大学学位论文原创性声明和使用权限哈尔滨工业大学学位论文原创性声明和使用权限 ......................................................... 68 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction The term “speech acts” is familiar to language learners, which is also widely studied by some famous linguists and scholars. Speech acts being a major theory of pragmatics are a comparatively new branch of Linguistics .Speech acts were first referred to and defined comprehensively by the British philosopher John Austin, considered as the father of speech act theory, in his famous and well-known book How to do Things with Words in the year of 1962 and his theory of speech acts which later became the fundamental. “How to Do Things with Words “ played an important part in the evolution of linguistics and even now it is still one of the required and necessary reference for the academics in the field of linguistic study Speech act theory was initially put forward by John Austin in the 1950s and widely studied in the 60s and 70s. It is a depiction of a great many activities which a person may be doing when something is uttered .In accordance with the speech act theory, language is used not only to depict or describe something but also to do something and perform certain acts and the theory of speech acts is the inter-medium of our communication. In China, speech act theory has aroused great interest and attention, thus, Chinese scholars have conducted a great many researches on the theory. Some are concerned about the analysis methods of speech acts, some focus on how to apply them into the relative fields, other scholars pay more attention to the contents of the speech acts .In order to facilitate the development of speech acts and the application of the theory in related fields, a comprehensive study of the theory in China becomes more and more popular. Under such circumstances, this thesis intends to investigate and discuss speech acts from a different aspect--- the pragmatic functions of speech acts in grammatical framework .In this chapter, purpose and significance of speech acts and structure of the research are to be elaborated successively. 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - 2 - 1.1 Objectives of the Research Speech acts are widely used in human Being’s daily life. Having a deep understanding of the pragmatic functions of the speech acts in different aspects is the necessary conditions for the successful communication. The study of the functions of the speech acts is of great importance for people to communicate with each other successfully and smoothly, and also has great effect on other aspects, such as the English Teaching. Having the knowledge of speech acts do good to the efficient class atmosphere. Levison(1983) has held that we should consider how did Austin develop and complete the framework of speech act theory. Based on Austin’s speech act theory, his students Seale developed his theory and he put forward a theory called indirect speech act theory. Both of Austin and Seale believe that any patterns of language communication will have something with speech act theory and the basic units of language communication cannot be the simple sounds, words or sentences, and there is no doubt that it must be an act of speech(He Zhaoxiong, 2000). Therefore, having a deep research on the speech act theory is of great importance to the successful communication, especially in a new and different perspective. The author of this thesis will try to analyze the pragmatic functions and the effect of the speech acts from the perspective of the grammatical framework .The objectives of the thesis is as follows: (1)Analyze the nature and core of the speech acts. (2)Analyze the pragmatic functions of the speech acts from the aspect of the grammatical framework based on the examples of the speech acts. 1.2Significance of the Research Speech act theory is the first important theory in pragmatics, firstly put forward in the 1950s, and widely studied in the 60s and 70s. It is the description of the vast majority of activities that a person may be performing or doing something when something is uttered. Therefore understanding or learning about the nature of speech act theory is a must when speaking. As an English phenomenon, speech acts also 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - 3 - play a very important part in people’s daily life, especially in human being’s daily communication activities. The study of the speech act theory is a very important research field of the pragmatics and semantics. It has not only the directive function of the specific verbal communication but also great influence on many different fields, such as language teaching, psychological linguistics, translation theory and innovative research. Based on the domestic research status of speech acts and the further study of the nature of the speech act theory, the author of this paper tends to make a further study of the pragmatic functions of speech act theory in order to make the speech act serve for human being’s life and study. Although many linguistics and scholars have already studied the pragmatic functions of the speech act theory in some fields, the number of people who study the pragmatic function of the speech act from the perspective of grammar is rare. Therefore, making a research on it is worthwhile and meaningful. 1.3Structure of the Research This thesis contains six chapters altogether. The first chapter introduces briefly the objectives of the research, the significance of the research and the structures of this paper. The second chapter is the literature review of this paper. In this chapter, the study achievement of the speech act theory at home and abroad has been introduced and described in detail. The third chapter is the theoretical framework of this paper. Austin’s speech act theory is introduced, including the concept of locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary act. Searle’s concept of the speech act theory is also introduced here, especially his classification of the illocutionary act. The fourth and fifth chapters are the body part of this thesis and introduce the pragmatic functions of the speech act in the grammatical framework. These two chapters introduce how the clause types, modal verbs, and non-modal verbs contribute to the speech acts. The last chapter is the conclusion, including two parts: summary and limitations. 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - 4 - Chapter 2 Literature Review As an important part of pragmatics, speech act theory began from the 1930s. It was a reaction that linguists and scholars made for the research logicism. Speech act theory was first put forward by the early philosophers, but it is the English linguist Austin that was the first person who elaborated and discussed the speech act in detail. He had paid much more attention on the influence which human being received from the language they had used especially on people how to use language to do things in Human Being’s daily life. At the beginning of the 20th century, the traditional western philosophy began to turn to the linguistics, that is, the object of linguistics is regarded as the object or subject of philosophy, analyzing the language from the perspective of philosophy. It is in the context that Austin put forward his famous speech act theory in his book How to do with Things (1962). After that, the modification and supplement are added to his initial theory by his student Seale, making it becoming the backbone theory of the pragmatics. The research of this theory can be divided into two stages, from 1979 to 1989 as the introduction stage of the theory which is introduced to China by the famous linguist such as Xu guozhang, He ziran, Gu yueguo, and He zhaoxiong. Since 1990, more and more linguists and scholars from other fields have been dedicated to the study of speech acts. In this paper, the author will introduce and summarize the speech acts’ main research achievements of the linguists and scholars at home and abroad on the basis of core journals as the theoretical basis of the study. 2.1The Study of Speech Acts at Home The study of the speech act theory can be categorized into two stages, namely, the introduction stage of the theory and the application stage of the speech act theory. In this part of the thesis, the author will summarize the latest application of the speech act theory on the basis of the related papers published in the core journals of the past ten years from 2002-2011. Typing the key word “speech act “in the retrieval page of the Chinese academic journal Web,40 papers published by Chinese scholars and linguists from 2002 to 2011can be found, mainly related to the subjects in the 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - 5 - study of the philosophy. These articles, in general, represent the research achievements of the speech act theory within these ten years, which was gained by Chinese linguists and scholars. 2.1.1The Study of Speech Acts in Linguistics and Literature The applied research of the speech act theory in language literature is very active, whose study achievement is involved in poetics, translation, conversation discourse coherence, narrative and many other aspects. Zhu Xiaozhou(2002) employed the speech act theory to interpret various forms of irony of the author and the characters of the book pride and prejudice is the same as the irony speech acts in the normal language, both of which can be elaborated in the framework of the speech act, thereby validating the feasibility of the speech act theory to the literature appreciation. Zhang Yizhi(2004) made use of the speech act theory to have a constructive attempt of Wordsworth ‘s poem. He analyzed the specific speech act of the poet by means of putting Wordsworth’s poem into the vision of the speech act. Through the study of propositions and the illocutionary acts, he looked forward to achieving the goal of integrating different theoretical perspectives and setting up the circular criticism of Wordsworth’s poem. Xiao Jinlong(2007) introduced the disruptive change which was made to the outstanding American literature critics J. Hillis Miller’s literature concept by the speech act. In the process of the research of translation, Fu Hongjun and Liu Min(2003), with the help of the speech act theory, introduced and discussed the limited effect which factors outside of the text had on the explanation and comprehension of the text. Jiang Haiqing discussed the function of the speech act theory which is used to guide the translation of classic Chinese poems. Shi Chuanlong discussed the translation of the movie by drawing on the speech act theory and at the same time put forward literal translation, substitute, and some other translation methods in order to realize the perlocutionary act. Ai Lin(2010) put forward the most ideal translation, from the perspective of speech act theory ,realizing the full equality from the angle of locutionary, illocutionary act and 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - 6 - perlocutionary act between the original and the translation, while the most feasible translation lies in the pursuit the maximum similarity of the three aspects mentioned above between original and translation. The process of the discourse coherence study involves the textual coherence and the anticipation of the discourse coherence to the new theory, while the speech act theory just satisfied the expectations of it. Bin Fenglian and Pei Wenbin(2009) pointed out the application of the speech act theory showed a new angle of the point for the research and practice of the translation, thus becoming the theoretical tools to guide the discourse translation. Chen Haiqing and Zhang Shaojie(2004) pointed out that with the deep research of discourse analysis, academic circles were not content to the theory of textual cohesion and coherence put forward by Halliday and Hasan. Therefore they made use of the speech act theory to analyze the problem of discourse coherence and meanwhile put forward the theoretical model, which is tangible, visible and invisible, of the discourse in the aspect of speech act. Conversation has been one of the hot topics of the linguistic research. Xiang Dongcheng(2006) analyzed the conversation structure by means of speech act theory. And pointed out that speech act theory can be used within the field of conversation analysis, which, however, could not be used alone to solve the two problems appearing in the process of conversation. Fang Jincheng(2011) made use of the speech act theory to analyze the silence phenomenon of the nonverbal communication. 2.1.2 The Study of Speech Acts in Other Fields During the past ten years, speech act theory has also been applied to the law, education, media and some other domains. Qiu Shaoji(2008) introduced the speech act theory related to the law and pointed out that it can be used as the basic theoretical framework of the legal language study. Jiang Linlin and Yuan Lili pointed out the differentiation of the speech act theory also provided the theoretical framework for understanding the legal language speech act. 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - 7 - In the perspective of pedagogy, the application study of speech act theory mainly focused on the oral English teaching and the development of students’’ pragmatic ability, as was pointed out by Lin lin, who pointed out that in order to make communication go smoothly, it was necessary to bring in the study of pragmatic strategies which was related to language and acts. Li Tian xian(2003) discussed and elaborated the enlightenment of the speech act theory on the college spoken English teaching. Taking Chen Jun and Zhang Jijia(2005), they, from the perspective of speech act, analyzed psychological mechanism of discipline information. During the process of the media study, Zhao Hongyan and Li Jinhui(2010) put media rhetoric within the category of political rhetoric to discuss the relationship among the three components: speech act theory, media diplomacy and political rhetoric. As a new theory, the speech act theory has also exposed its deficiency and shortcomings, such as, paying more attention to perlocutionary acts, the classification of speech act and the lack of systemic(Fu Yitao, 2004). However, the deficiency and shortcomings do not influence the pragmatic functions and application in every field of the speech act theory. With the deep research, we look forward to the cooperation of the philosophers and linguists to make it more perfect. From ten years’ research, we can make a conclusion that Chinese scholars gave sufficient attention to the speech act theory, and put it into different research field after digesting it, gaining great achievement. But it still lacks the perfect thesis to participate in the international dialogue. 2.2 The Study of Speech Acts Abroad Internationally, many linguists and scholars have focused on the discussion and research of the speech act theory during the past several decades. The person who most focused on the speech act theory and made rapid progress on it after Austin was J.R. Searle. Searle has issued his views and opinions of the speech act theory successively, such as What is a Speech Act? (1965), Speech Acts: An Essay in 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - 8 - the Philosophy of Language(1969), Speech Acts (1969), Indirect Speech Acts(1975), A Classification of Illocutionary Acts, Language in Society (1976), Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts(1979) and so on. Searle has also combined the metaphor to discuss the speech act theory, such as Metaphor(1979).The opinion of Searle is the inheritance, correction, development and systemic of the speech act theory. He regarded the speech act theory as a kind of theory to illustrate people’s language communication. In the 1960s, there were also some linguists and scholars making a deep research on it, such as Strawson, P.F Intention and Conversation in Speech Acts(Philosophical Review), Forguson, L.W.(1969) who wrote the book Austin’s Philosophy of action and Cohen. L.J (1969) writing the book Do illocutionary forces exist? In the 70s, Ross noticed that the simple declarative clauses and the explicit performatives had the same syntactic features. And he made a deep research about it. J.M. Sadock (1974) put forward higher performation. According to Austin’s division of the performatives and constatives, Katz(1977) proposed that the type of clauses should be combined with the classification of performatives acts to elaborate how the vocabulary contents and syntactic structures was used to interpret the potential and the necessary conditions of the speech acts. But some of their theories were proved to have some serious problems by Gazdar(1979) and Allan(1986). In addition, there also existed some excellent scholars worth mentioning at this period, such as Strawson(1973) and Michael(1979) who wrote the masterpiece Austin and Locutionary Meaning(Essay on J.L Austin, Oxford University Press)and The Classification of Cooperation Illocutionary Acts (Language in Society) respectively. In 1980s, the person who made a research of the performative verbs within the scope of the speech act theory was the famous British linguist Wierzbicka(1987). She made a survey about 250 English speech act verbs and made a further classification and then analyzed them from the perspective of semantic structures in order to find out the semantic structures models of these speech act verbs. There are also some important research about the speech act theory particularly worth 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - 9 - mentioning, such as Blum-Kulka, S. & E. Olshtain’s Requests and Apologies: A Cross- Cultural Study of Speech Act Realization Patterns(Applied Linguists), Speech Act Theory: The State of the Art(Language Teaching and Linguistics: Abstracts) written by Levinson, S.C.(1980) and Classification of intersubjective Illocutionary Acts(Language in Society)which is written by Stiles, William B.(1981). These masterpieces mentioned above had a deep influence on the development of the speech act in the 1980s. Foreign experts and scholars have paid more attention to the theory of the speech act since 1990s.In this period ,they widen the study field and direction of the speech act theory on the basis of the research of the 1980s, they also reflect the discussion of the speech act theory of these years at the same time, such as Towards A History of Speech Act Theory written by Smith and Barry and Van Rees and M.A.’s The Adequacy of Speech Act Theory for Explaining Conversational Phenomena: A Response to Some Conversational Analytical Critics which was cited from Journal of Pragmatics. In summary, international linguists paid more attention of the discussion of the language potential, actual intent, the purpose of the speech act, the classification of the speech act and indirect speech act, and the comprehensive study of the cross discipline such as cognitive and semantics, and the comparative research of the two language. 万方数据 哈尔滨工业大学 硕士学位论文 Harbin Institute of Technology M.A. Thesis - 10 - Chapter 3 Theoretical Framework The speech act theory is the core theory of the pragmatics and it is also the hot topic of the contemporary language research. The classification of the speech act theory is one of the topics that have attracted the most attention of linguists and scholars in terms of the speech act. In the past thirty years, linguists and philosophers, according to their own understanding of the theory, have tried all kinds of classification of the speech act theory from different angles, depending on various standards. All these attempts not only enrich and perfect the speech act theory, but also deepen the human being’s understanding of the nature and core of the speech act theory. Various kinds of classification of speech acts lay a profound foundation for the acquisition of the speech act theory. In this chapter, the author of this paper will list some of the representative concepts and opinions of the speech act theory in order to have a further understanding of the pragmatic functions which will be introduced in the fourth chapter in detail. Speech act theory was firstly put forward or raised by Austin, who was a British philosopher and subsequently published a book...

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