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    顺应论视角下的公示语汉英翻译

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    内容提示: 南华大学硕士学位论文顺应论视角下的公示语汉英翻译姓名:张伟平申请学位级别:硕士专业:外国语言学及应用语言学指导教师:刘祥清20090501 摘要公示语应用于我们日常生活的方方面面,与我们的生活休戚相关,它应遵循一定的行为准则,把必要的、有用的信息传达给公众。随着中国国际交往的日益广泛和深入,双语公示语随处可见,作为世界认识中国的媒介,公示语汉英翻译日益显示出其重要性。进入21世纪后,公示语翻译逐渐成为社会各界关注的热点。许多专家学者对公示语的翻译进行了多方面的研究和探讨,他们以不同的理论为依据从不同的视角分析了汉语公示语的翻译,取得了可喜的...

    威廉希尔app下载格式:PDF| 浏览次数:35| 上传日期:2015-09-21 03:21:09| 威廉希尔app下载星级:
    南华大学硕士学位论文顺应论视角下的公示语汉英翻译姓名:张伟平申请学位级别:硕士专业:外国语言学及应用语言学指导教师:刘祥清20090501 摘要公示语应用于我们日常生活的方方面面,与我们的生活休戚相关,它应遵循一定的行为准则,把必要的、有用的信息传达给公众。随着中国国际交往的日益广泛和深入,双语公示语随处可见,作为世界认识中国的媒介,公示语汉英翻译日益显示出其重要性。进入21世纪后,公示语翻译逐渐成为社会各界关注的热点。许多专家学者对公示语的翻译进行了多方面的研究和探讨,他们以不同的理论为依据从不同的视角分析了汉语公示语的翻译,取得了可喜的成绩。本文拟将顺应论与公示语的翻译结合起来,从顺应论的角度来探讨公示语的翻译,希望为公示语的翻译提供一些理论思路。本文第一部分为概述,简要介绍了公示语翻译背景、存在的问题、研究方法。第二部分简单介绍了公示语的基本知识,包括公示语的定义、分类、特点和汉英公示语的不同点。第三部分阐明了顺应论和公示语翻译的关系。维索尔伦的语言观为汉英公示语翻译提供了一种新视角,揭示了汉英公示语翻译是一个不断选择和顺应的过程。第四部分论述语言语境顺应和非语言语境顺应。语言语境顺应主要包括词汇、句法两方面的顺应,非语言语境顺应主要包括社交世界、物理世界二个方面的顺应。译者应不仅要从词汇,句法等方面做出语言层次上的顺应还要从读者的思维方式、价值观等方面做出非语言层次上的顺应。第五部分结合公示语的分类和顺应论下的翻译标准,论述静态公示语和动态公示语的翻译方法。静态公示语可以采用直译、类比、扩译等翻译方法,动态公示语可以采用借译、省译、重构等翻译方法。第六部分得出结论。作者认为译者在汉语公示语英译过程中应尽量符合顺应理论,即译者需要根据不同类型的公示语的语言形式,动态地采用不同的翻译方法,公示语的英译文应在语言表达方式、格式措辞等方面尽量顺应英语表达习惯。本文通过汉语公示语英译的考察,希望对学界汉语公示语英译有所助益。关键词:公示语;汉英翻译;顺应论;翻译方法IV Chi nese-Engl i shTransl ati on of Publ i cSi gnsG ui dedbyAdaptati onTheoryAbstractPubl i csi gns,as partof ourdai l y l i fe,are desi gnedtoobeycertai npubl i cm orall awandi m parti nform ati on topassersby.They pl aya fundam ental andunequal l edrol e i npeopl e’ Sfi ves.W i th thespeed upof soci aldevel opm entand thedeepeni ngofcul turalandeconom i ci nteracti on, bi l i ngualsi gnsarefrequentl yneeded.Chi nese-Engl i shtransl ati on of pubfi c si gnshas becom e al li ncreasi ngl y i m portantm edi umfor the outsi dew orl d to knowChi na.It i s si nce the 21st centurythat thestudyon the transl ati on ofpubfi c si gnshasbecom e a m ore attracti vetopi c.Q ui teanum ber of researchers arespeci al i zedi n thi sfi el d.They anal yzethetransl ati on ofpubl i c si gnsfromdi fferentperspecti vesbased ondi verse theoreti calsupport,w hi chhas m adegreatcontri buti ons to thestudyofpubl i csi gns.Thi s thesi sattem ptstoappl y adaptati on theorytoChi nese-Engl i shtransl ati onofpubl i c si gns.Thi s thesi s i scom posedof si xchapters.ChapterO negi vesa bri ef i ntroduCti on of thebackground,probl em sand researchm ethods ofChi nese· Engl i shtransl ati on ofpubl i c si gns.Chapter Tw opresents asurveyofgeneral know l edge concerni ng publ i c si gns.The defi ni ti on, cl assi fi cati on,styl i sti cfeatures ofpubfi c si gnsand di fferences betw een Chi nese andEngl i shpubH csi gnsaredi scussed.ChapterThree dem onstrates therel ati onshi pbetw eenpubl i c si gnsandadaptati on theoryfrom theperspeai veof J ef Versehueren’ Sadaptati on theory.Thi sthesi s vi ew s Chi nese-Engl i sh transl ati on ofpubl i csi gnsasa process ofconti nuousm aki ngchoi ces andadaptati on.ChapterFour andChapterFi ve are thecenter of thi s thesi s.InChapterFour’ thi s thesi s el aborates theadaptati oni nl i ngui sti cV andextra-l i ngui sti c contexts.Li ngui sti ccontextadaptati oni s di vi ded i nto l exi caladaptati onandsyntax adaptati on.Extra-l i ngui sti c adaptati oni s di vi ded i nto soci alw orl dadaptati onandphysi calw orl dadaptati on.Thetransl ator shoul dnotonl ym akel i ngui sti c adaptati onat l exi cal , and syntacti call evel s but al so m akeextra-l i ngui sti cadaptati on consi deri ngthetarget reader’ sthi nki ng styl e,val ueoutl ook.InChapter Fi ve,thi s thesi sexpl orestransl ati on m ethods ofChi nese-Engl i shtransl ati on ofpubl i c si gnsaccordi ngto the cl assi fi cati on ofpubl i c si gnsand the cri teri a underadaptati ontheory.Li teraltransl ati onandanal ogytransl ati onarei ncl i nedtobeem pl oyedi nChi nese-Engl i shtransl ati on of the stati cpubl i c si gns;Chi nese-Engl i shtransl ati on ofthedynam i c publ i c si gnsi s tended toadopt the transl ati on m ethods ofborrow i ng,om i ssi on, and restructuri ng.ChapterSi x draw s a concl usi on.Thepresentauthorthi nks that transl ators shoul d exert greatefforts toal i gnthem sel ves to theadaptati ontheory.Inaccordance w i th di fferentstyl i sti cfeatures of Chi nesepubl i c si gns,thetransl atordynam i cal l yusesdi fferenttransl ati on m ethodsforanadaptati oni nl i ngui sti candextra-l i ngui sti c contexts ofEngl i sh.Thi s paperaddresses agoodtransl ator shoul dtryto m ake sure that the transl atedexpressi onand di cti on can m atchthe habi tof Engl i sh l anguage expressi onas m uch a8possi bl ei n theprocess ofChi nese· Engl i shtransl ati on ofpubl i c si gns.W i th theexpl orati onofChi nese-Engl i shtransl ati on ofpubl i c si gns,the presentauthorhopesthi sstudycoul d m ake som e hum bl e efforts to thestudyof thi s fi el dZhangW ei pi ng(Forei gn Li ngui sti csandAppl i ed Li ngui sti cs)Supervi sed byProfessor Li uXi angqi ngKey w ords:publ i c si gns;Chi nese· Engl i sh transl ati on;Adaptati on Theory;transl ati onm ethodsVI ChapterO neLi terature Revi ew1.1BackgroundEconom i cgl obal i zati onprovi desm oreopportuni ti esforChi natoconducti nternati onalexchangeandCO -operati on.Si nceChi naj oi ned W TO ,ourforei gncom m uni cati on hasrapi dl y devel opedand it w i l l conti nuedevel opi ngat anunprecedentedspeedi n the fi el ds ofdi pl om acy, econom y, busi ness,cul tureand touri sm .Thegovernm enthas done extensi vew ork i nrevi si ng pol i ci esandregul ati onsandi m provi ng m anagem ent,w hi ch w i l lbol ster Chi nese i nfrastructures to g疆' eateal l envi ronm ent to attractforei gni nvcstm ent,m aki ngit m ore accessi bl e for the Chi nesoeconom yto i nteract w i th the w orl d.Chi nesepeopl e begi nto l earn the w estern advancedtechnol ogyandtrytom ergei nto thefl ood of econom i ci ntegrati on.As w e easi l y observe,w e w i l lnotonl y acqui retheexperi enceandtcchnol ogyofforei gncountri esthrough Engl i sh, butal so need to adverti seoursel veseffecti vel yto the outsi de w orl dthrough Engl i sh.Inthi stw o- w ay com m uni cati on,the transl ati on of Chi nesepubl i c si gnsw i l lsurel y pl ayani m portantrol e i npubl i ci zi ngChi na to the w orl d.The thesi s tri es to m ake an overal lstudyof Chi nesepubl i c si gnsand thei r transl ati oni ntoEngl i sh.Tradi ti onal l anguagestudi es focus on thecom prehensi onand the cri ti ci smoftheori gi naltexts and thei r transl ati on.Iti s after the 1970s thatl i ngui sts begantostudyappl i ed l i ngui sti cs.O verthepast30years,Chi nese l i ngui sts appl i ed l anguageto vari ousfi el ds,suchaseducati on, sci ence,busi ness, touri sm , andbegantom ake adynam i c studyofi t.As the fam ousl i ngui stLvShuxi ang sai d, l anguagedoes notstayi sol ated but i s usedbypeopl e.Si ncethe1990s,som e publ i c si gns e.g.noti ce,nam eofshops,tradem ark, w hi chhad beennegl ectedi n thepast,beganto attract m oropeopl e’ Sattenti on.Som eexpertsandschol ars advocated that it W asnecessaryto reeval uate the transl ati on of thesesi gns fromtheprofessi onal perspecti ve.Ani ncreasi ngnum ber offorei gnerscom e to Chi mon busi ness or for atour.M any1 i nternati onalconferences,forum s,m eeti ngsand festi val s arehel d i n Chi na.Sothe researchonpubl i c si gnsand thei r transl ati on i ntoEngl i shi sbecom i nga hottopi c,andi sdraw i ngattenti on from academ i c fi el d and even from thegovernm ent.In 1992,Yu G enyuanexpressed hi s vi ew poi nton Chi nesesl ogansi n hi sbook--Anal ysi s of Language ofAdverti sem ent,Sl oganO n Four H undredExam pl es(广告,标语,招贴用语评析400例)andG ongQ i anyanal soanal yzed publ i c si gnsi nhi sarti cl e---Studyon Soci alLanguage( 社会用语研究刍议).Lu Zuben(1996),Li u J i chun(1997),Zhao J un(1997),W u W ei xi ong(1998),Li uFengl i ng(1999),Di ng M i ng’ an( 1999) publ i shedthei racadem i cm onographsdi scussi ngthe transl ati on ofpubH c si gns.M any professors organi zedstudents toi denti fytransl ati on el l ' O rS and thencom pi l edarti cl es to correct them .Forexam pl e,W an Zhenfang(2004),W ang Y' m quanandChertXi ngyi ng(2005)respecti vel ypresentedthei rfi ndi ngs i n Chi nese Transl atorJ ournal —P时M oreAttenti on to the Transl ati onof theN am e of跏叩and Uni t(必, 须重视城市街道商店和单位名称的翻译),Anal yzi ngtheTransl ati on ofPubl i cSi gnsw i thExam p/es( 城市标识用语英译及实例分析) .M anyuni versi ti es appl i edfor researchproj ects tostuoy publ i c si gns.For exam pl e,i n Bei j i ngInternati onal Studi esU ni verSi ty, ProfessorsD aiZongxi angand LV H era defi nedpubl i csi gnsandcl assi fi ed thei rfuncti ons.Theyfounded the research center ofpubl i c si gnsandcol l ected theori gi naltexts fromLondon,andsetupthe w ebsi te toi denti fyerrors ofpubl i csi gnsanddi scuss thei r correct transl ati ons w i th thecyberci ti zens on l i ne.It w astheyw hom ade thestudy ofpubl i c si gnsasystem ati cand academ i c one.O nSeptem ber25 toSeptem ber 27,2005,thefi rst sessi onof thesym posi umonpubl i c si gns transl ati on w ashel d i nBei j i ng.Fam oustransl ators nati onw i de m et theredi scussi ngtheexi sti ng probl em sofpubl i c si gnsandseeki ngforfeasi bl estrategi esand m ethods of transl ati on.Thesym posi umcal l ed 011peopl etOi denti fyeIrors ofpubl i c si gnsw i thi n the w hol ecountryand itm arked thehi ghl i ghtof thestudyonpubl i c si gns.1.2 Probl em s andsi gni fi canceAl l the arti Cl es m enti oned above have m adegreatcontri buti on to thestudyofpubl i c2 si gns.H ow ever, theydi dn’ tgi vean al l -around i ntroduai omM anydi scussonl yoneaspectof them , such as hotelbrochures,forei gn pubri cRy m ateri al s,ci ty profi l es,and producti ntroduai ons.Inaddi ti on, 蹒al l i m portantel em ent i n theprocessoftransl ati on, cul ture,w hi ch i scl osel yrel ated tol anguage,hasbeennegl ectedi n these arti cl es.Transl ati onstudi es shoul d take the"cul ture run"and thestudyof transl ati on i s thestudyof cul turali nteracti on.Thi s thesi s i ntends to el aborate the transl ati on ofpubl i c si gnsnotonl yfromthel i ngui sti c perspecti ve,butal so fromthe cul turalperspecti ve.Publ i csi gnsdopresentsom e transl ati onalprobl em si nevery ci tyofChi na, especi al l yi n the ci ti es l i keBci j i ng, ShanghaiandGuangzhou.Accordi ngto Professor LuoXuanm i n,m anytransl ati onsofpubl i c si gns vi ol ate the pri nci pl eof‘ ' terse,conventi onalandi ntertextual ' ’ and fai l to ful fi l l the functi on ofdi recti ngorw arni ngthereceptors.N on-standardE】嘻陆h frequentl y appearsi n the transl ati on ofpubl i c si gns.M anyEngfi shversi ons do not deri verthe ori gi nali nform ati on.Thi si sl argel y due to thecharacteri sti c of eachl anguageand the di fference betw een Chi nese andEngl i sh thi nki nghabi t.Transl ators al e i nfl uencedbyChi nesethi nki ng styl e,w hi ch bri ngsabout agreatdealof thei naccuracyof transl ati on and even en' ors.Som e[ fi e w ord-for-w ordtransl ati ons,w hi l e othersnegl ectthebrevi tyofEngl i sh, w i thout com pensati ngfor thei m pl i edm eani ngof Chi nese.Furtherm ore,sti l lotherseven i gnorethe cul tural di fferences andproduceunrel i abl e O rm i sl eadi ng transl ati ons.Therefore,i ti snecessaryfor U S tO Inake atheoreti calstudyof how to fi ndappropri ate sol uti ons,and there i s an evengreaterneed toappl ytheori es topracti ce.Infact,transi ti oni naccuraci es and el l ' O rs l ead topoorcom m uni cati on and have anegati vei nfl uence on thew orki ngenvi ronm entby reduci ng effi ci ency.Aseri ous m i stakei n transl ati on w i l ldam ageO U rcountry' s i m agei n the w orl d.W e al l knowthat the 6thAsi anW i nter G am es have been hel dsuccessful l yi nChangchun, andthat theO l ym pi cG am eshave been hosted i nBei j i ng.Engl i sh publ i c si gnsbe, c.Dm e the‘ ' w i ndow s” to access Chi naforforei gners.How ever, i naccuraci esand C1TO rS ofChi nese-Engl i shtransl ati ons can beseen everyw here.M anytransl ati onsare even taken asl aughi ngstock byforei gners.3 Accordi ngtoBei j i ng M orni ng,w henM arti n fromBri tai n w ent i nto a roomw i th the si gn‘ ' restroom ' ’ ,aw ai tress w el com ed hi mw arm l y.M arti nknew fromher thatit W as a roomused for rest.In fact,‘ ‘ restroom ' ’ i n Engl i shm eans‘ ' toi l et’ ’ .The transl ator m ade am i stakeand com bi ned the w ord‘ ' rest"(休息)w i ththe w ord‘ ' room ' ’ (房间)i naccordance w i thChi nesethi nki ng.M arti n fi nal l yfound a toi l et w i th thesi gnon w hi ch a nl an’s head w aspi ctured,butthe head w as red i n col or.So he m i sunderstood that the toi l et W aSunavai l abl e,because‘ ' red,’ m eant‘ ‘ forbi dden"i n the i nternati onal standard and a red head m eant m encoul d not enter the toi l et.Such asi m pl e si gn bri ngsabout m uchtroubl e for theforei gner.Therefore,regul ati onandsupervi si onofthe transl ati on ofpubl i c si gnshas becom e aseri ous andurgenttask.Chi nesehardl y fi nd the Chi nesesi gnsi n w esterncountri es, apartfrom those i nChi natow n, butw eprovi detheEngl i shtransl ati ons ofpubl i c si gnsforforei gnersi n Chi na.Isn’ t thi s the essencoof‘ ‘ harm onyi nsoci ety"?Therefore,i nthi ssfi l l se,i ti ssi gni fi canttoregul atethe transl ati on ofpubl i csi gnsnotonl ytoi m provetheChi nese l anguageenvi ronm ent,buttocontri buteto thebui l di ngof aharm oni oussoci ety.1.3Appl i cati on ofAdaptati onTheoryi n Publ i cSi gnsThel i ngui sti c Adaptati on Theoryi sbasi cal l yatheory ofpragm ati es w hi ch w asproposed byJ ef Verschueren.H e vi ew edpragm ati csfrom a functi onalperspecti ve.Inw hi ch he vi ew edl i ngui sti c pragm ati csas a m ethodbyw hi chpeopl e u∞l anguageto forma behavi oror soci alacti on.Thi si s the di m ensi on w hi ch thepragm ati c perspecti vei si ntended togi ve i nsi ghti nto i s the l i nk betw eenl anguageand hum an fi fe i ngeneral .H eactual l y speci fi ed pragm ati csasageneral cogni ti ve,soci aland cul ture perspecti veonl i ngui sti c phenom enoni n rel ati on tothei rusagei n form s of behavi or竹.He observes w hatw e w ant to understand i s the functi ons of al anguagei n i ts ful lcom pl exi ty.Thi si s anendeavor to understandhowand w hat contri butes to l i fe andsurvi val , atthe l evel of hum anrace,sm al l erandl argercom m uni cati ons,i ndi vi dual s,andday-to-daysi tuati ons(Versehueren, 2000).Adaptati on Theoryc蛆bcon the basi s of Darw i n’ Sevol uti onary4 theoryto i ncl ude a formof naturalsel ecti on, w hi chaccounts for the di verseadaptati onsoforgani sm sto di fferent envi ronm ent condi ti ons.There are som easpectsof hum an cul turethatportrayhum anbei ngsasbi ol ogi cal l y adapti vei n som e broadsense,andthi sappl i esparti cul arl yto sci ence andtechnol ogy.Thuson thesam el evel W ecancom fortabl ysaythatl anguage,w hi chi spartof hum ancuRure,doeshave abroadadapti veval ue.Thi s i scom m on i npubl i c si gnsw herem anycul tures areexpectedto vi ew the sam esi gnfromdi fferentbackgrounds.TheU Se ofl anguage especi al l yforpubl i cU Se m ust consi st of theconti nuousm aki ngof m axi m uml anguage reasoni ng.Theseeval uati ons can be sui ted atanyl evel ofl i ngui sti c form :phoneti c/phonol ogi cal , m orphol ogi cal syntacti c,l exi cal , andsem anti c.They m ay rangeover vari ety-i nternal opti ons,or they i nvol veregi onal l y,soci al l yorfuncti onal l ydi stn' butedtypesofvari ati on(Verschueren, 2000).1.4 Research m ethod and data col l ecti onEnl i ghtenedby m anytheori sts of transl ati on, theauthorattem ptstostuoy publ i c si gnsand thei r transl ati on fromtheperspecti veofAdaptati on Theoryandadoptsaqual i tati veapproachto theanal ysi sofpubl i c si gns.Theresearch m ethod i sdescri pti verather thanprescri pti ve.The descri pti vetransl ati on study regardsrestori ng and reproduci ngthespeci fi c experi enceandtransl ati ng processof aspeci fi ctransl ator as i tsobj ects.Thi sthesi sw i l lcl assi fy publ i c si gnsand thentryto fi nd feasi bl e transl ati on m ethods.In order to col l ectenoughm ateri al s tOcom pl etethe thesi s,the author col l ect m anyexam pl esfrombooks,j ournal sand the Intem et.The col l ecti on ofEngl i shPubl i csi gnscom es fromthe w ebsi tew w w .m anythi ngs.org, afunstudysi te for l earners ofEngl i shas aSecondLanguagesetup byCharl esI.Kel l y& Law rence E.Kel l y, w hi ch provi desover 700pi cturesofEngl i sh si gnsi nthe U.S.Arangi ngfromroadsi gns,traffi c si gns,parki ng si gns,constructi onsi gns,safety si gns,w arni ng si gns,and shop si gns,tovari ouseveryday si gnspl acedi npubl i c pl aces i .e.hospi tal s,ai rports,sceni c spots,gas stati ons,etc.O ur researchdataal so com efrom therel evantw ebsi tesofChi nese—Engl i shsi gnresearche.g.http://l anguage.chi nadai l y.com .cn/herew egow hi ch i s sponsored by Chi naDai l y and5 w herem any photosofChi ngl i sh si gnsareposted dai l y bythose w ho are enthusi asti c i ntheprogramof“ Us啦Accurate Engl i shto W el com e theO l ym pi cs” .Al li nal l , w ehave m adegreatefforts to ensure that our research data缸eadequate enoughtocarryout thepresentstudy.6 ChapterTw o An Introducti on to Publ i cSi gnsBeforedi scussi ng transl ati onofpubl i csi gns,i ti snecessarytogi vea bri efi ntroducti on topubH c si gns.Inthi schapter, the defi ni ti on, cl assi fi cati on,styl i sti cfeaturesofpubl i c si gnsand di fferences betw een Chi nese andEngl i shO nes arepresented.2.1 Defi ni ti on ofpubl i c si gnsW hendi scussi ng.thedefi ni ti on of‘ ' pubH c si gns' ’ ,i ti s necessary to.cl ari fythedefi ni ti onof‘ ‘ si gn' ’ i ntheEngl i sh l anguage fi rst.Accordi ngtoO xfordEngl i sh Di c矗onary,“ sign' ’ refersto a characteri sti c devi ce attached to,or pl acedi n front of, al li nn or astore,as a m eans ofdi sti ngui shi ngit fromothersor di rect attenti on to i t.In W ebster' a Thi rdInternati onalD i cti onary,“ si gn—i sdefi ned as a l ettered board 0r otherpubl i c di spl aypl acedbefore or on abui l di ng, room , storeor offi ce to adverti se busi ness there transactedor the nam e ofpersonor fi rmconducti ngi t.In l aterUSe,i t com m onl yrefers to“ aboard,noti ce,etc.thatdkects som ebody tow ardssom ethi ng, gi vesaw arni ng, adverti sesabusi ness,etc.(O xfordAdvanced Learner' sEngl i sh-Chi nese Di cti onary).‘ ' Si gn' ’ i sfurthergeneral i zed bythe Free O nH neDi cti onaryas‘ ‘ apubl i c di spl aytovi sual l ycom m uni catei nform ati on".Fromthe above defi ni ti ons w e can∞c that them eani ng of‘ ' si gn’ ’ has devel opedfrombei ngnal Towtobei ng w i de.N ow adays,w i ththeappearanceof newki nds ofsi gns,suchasdi gi tal si gns,the m eani ngofsi gnscO vers an even w i derrange.Thephrase,"publ i c si gns” i sal lEngl i sh equi val entto theChi nese“ 公示语” ,al socal l ed“ 标示语” ,‘ ‘ 标识语” and‘ ‘ 标志语” .Accordi ngto w hat Professor D aiZongxi an sayson‘ ‘ nc 1tSym posi umon Chi nese andEngl i sh Si gnsi n aG l obalContext” ,‘ ' publ i c si gns”aresi gnsthat are show npubH cl y,offeri nga ki nd ofw arni ng,di recti on, noti fi cati onandothercl osel yrel ated l i teral orgraphi cali nform ati on.H e adds thatpubH c si gnsareactual l y7 a very i m portantcom ponentto thel anguage envi ronm entofaci ty, especi al l yani nternati onal touri stci ty.Publ i c si gnsarevery com m onl yused i npeopl e’ Ssoci all i fe.TheycoVer al m ostevery aspectofpeopl e’ S daffyl i fe.Al lthosepubl i c di spl aysw i th w ords,m arks,or/and pi cturesusedtoi nform , noti fy, di rect,restri ctorcom pelthepubH c of, aboutor to dosom ethi ngcan beregardedaspubl i c si gns.Tobespeci fi c,publ i c si gnsare m ostw i del yused i n/on publ i c transportati onservi ces andfaci l i ti es,suchas roaddi recti ons,subw ays,ai rports,gasstati ons andtransportati onvehi cl es;i n touri st attracti ons,such asparks,m useum s,sceni c spots and hi stori cal si tes;i n travel i ng servi ces,suchas travelconsul tati on, em ergencyai d andi nterpretati onservi ce;andi nbusi nessorgani zati ons,suchasstores,restaurants,superm arkets,exhi bi ti oncentersandtradeaffai rs.In AChi nese-Engl i sh Di cti onaryO nSi gns(2004),ProfessorLv H era and other edi tors col l ectan even w i derscopeofpubl i c si gns.Inonew ord,publ i c si gns m ayrefer tosi gnsthat offeri nform ati onpubl i cl y, m eanw hi l e,i na short and bri efw ay.2.2 Cl assi fi cati onofpubl i c si gnsPubl i csi gnsare essenti al to the norm al operati onof thesoci etyand thei r i nfl uence i sal so vi si bl e i n aLm ostevery aspectof ourdai l y l i fe.Som eti m es,w ehave tO adm i t that ourl i ves cannot do w i thout theproper gui dancethatpubl i c si gns provi detous.H ow ever, w hatusuaU y happensi s that w e areproneto be bew i l deredbyvari ouspubl i c si gns and theenorm ous i nform ati onthey conveyto U S.Therefore,i t w oul d be necessarytOcl assi fythepubl i c si gnsi n term s of thei r functi ons and the status of i nform ati on thattheydel i ver.2.2.1 Cl assi fi cati on i n term s of functi on111thi s thesi s,w e w i l ladoptJ ef Verschueren' s Adaptati on Theoryto di scussChi nese-Engl i shtransl ati on ofpubl i c si gns.Iti snecessaryfor U S tO knowthe functi ons ofpubl i c si gnsi n order to m akeadaptati on.Accordi ngtO Professor Ly H era,the di recti ng,prom pti ng, restri cti ngandcom pel l i ngeffects are the functi onalfeature, s of thel anguageappl i edO npubl i c si gns(g和发2005).Andeach of thembears a consi derabl em ood,fromw eak tostrong.8 2.2.1.1Di recti ngBasi cal l y speaki ng, publ i c si gns servi ng di recti ngfuncti on are i nform ati onprovi dersand thepurposei s to gi vereadersgui danceabout the servi ce thattheyare enti tl edto.Theydo noti m poseanyrestri cti on orw arni ngon thereceptors,SOno acti on w i l l becom pul soryfor thereceptorsto take.Forexam pl e,the si gn‘ ‘ 汽车租赁” (Car Rental )m eansone c加rentaautom obi l e i n thi scom pany.If youdo not needi t,youcansi m pl y i gnore i t.Therefore,thesi gnai m s atofferi ngsom e reference i nform ati on to thepubUc,andit i s thereceptorw ho deci des onw hether to rentan autom obi l e fromaparti cul arcar rentalcom panyor not.Anotherexam pl e,the si gn“ 观众安检通道", (Securi tyCheckGate) i nform sthe audi encew ho com e to the W i nter G am es thattheyhave to be checked for the sake of thei rsafetyhere and thi s i s theonl y w aytogeti n andout, w hi l ethesi gnm ean.qnothi ngtopeopl enotconcerned.M oreexam pl esof thi s ki nd:外卖TakeAw ay旅馆H otel暂停Pause化妆品部Cosm eti cs出口处Exi t饮用水Dri nki ngW ater闯询服务Inform ati on营业时间Busi ness H ours菜单M enu入口处Entrance网吧)nternet Care机场安检Ai rport Se删tyFromtheexam pl esabove w em aytel l that thel anguageand the tone of thesepubl i csi gnsaregeneral l y neutral , refl ecti ngno aRi tude tow ardsreceptors.2.2.1.2Prom pti ngTheprom pti ng si gnsai mat cal l i ng peopl e' sattenti on w i thoutanyother connotati on.Theyarew i del yused onpubH coccasi ons and often uti l i ze bri ef andeuphem i sti cw ords asw el las di fferent form s of sentence structures.Frompubl i c si gnsof thi ski nd,peopl e m ayknoww hatproperacti on i ssupposedto be taken i ncom pl i ancew i th theregul ati on.Iti supto thereceptorto deci de w hetherto actor not.For exam pl e,“ 遗失物品店方概不负9 责” (M anagem entnotResponsi bl efor Arti cl e+Lost orStol en).Thi s si gnrem i nds custom ersthat theyhave tokc印an eyeon thei r ow nbel ongi ngs,andthatthe store w i l l not beresponsi bl efor the l oss i n thi sregard.Si ncethepossi bl e consequencei stol d,i tw i l l be thecustom er w ho w i l lpaythe l oss.Anotherexam pl e,the si gn“ 预留座位"(Reserved)onthetabl e i n the restaurant m eans that others have booked the tabl e i nadvance,andthatyouhave to fi nd other seats.M oreexam pl esof thi s ki nd:油漆未干W et Pai nt易爆物品Expl osi ve回收利用Recycl ed此处发现鲨鱼SharkSi ghted客满Ful l yBooked已消毒Steri l i zed献血处Bl oodD onati on限高M axi m umH ei ght(余富林,2003)2.2.1.3Restri cti ng心i ts nam esays,restri cti ngfuncti on i s to restri ctpeopl e’ sacti ons,thati s tosay, thi ski nd ofsi gustel l readers w hat he coul d do or w hat i s forbi dden.Thel anguagesusedi n thi ski nd ofsi gnsaresi m pl eand di rect but are not i nrude,toughori m pol i te w ay.W ecan l i stsom e of themas fol l ow s:“ KeepRi ght” (右侧行驶),m eani ng youshoul d dri ve on thefi ghtsi de and shoul d not dri ve 011the l eft si de.“ Sl owO ut” (慢速驶出),m eani ngthat the dri ver shoul d sl owdow nw hen he dri ve out."H andi capped O nl y"(残疾人专用通道),m oani ngthati t i sonl yforhandi cappedandotherscannot usei t.“ 30 M i nutesParki ng' ’ (限停30分钟),m 阻血gthe dri ver啪notparkhi scarover 30 m i nutesi nthi sparki ng.10 2.2.1.4 Com pel l i ngThecom pel l i ng si gns obfi gethepeopl econcerned not to take certai ni m perm i ssi bl eaeti ons w i th forceful , tough l anguage.Iti s used toprohi bi tthe readers to dosom ethi ng(N oLi ttcri ng禁止乱扔垃圾)orm ust dosom ethi ng(DogsM ust BeKepton a Leash狗必须用皮带牵住).W i ththestrongest com pel l i ngm ood, therei s notany possi bi l i tytocom prom i se,even it i sstri ctl yforbi dden thepubU cfromdoi ng som ethi ng.Im perati vesentence i s notenoughtoexpressthi sstrongm ood,usual l y, W eU Se‘ N o+⋯"form , for exam pl e,‘ ' N oFood禁止携带食物’ ’ atthe entrance to theh' brary.Its l anguagei s bri ef andcom pel l i ngw i thoutany com prom i se.Thesentences aye oReni m perati vew i thnegati vew ords like‘ №,’ ,"Forbi dden".In som e contexts,peopl etend to observetheregul ati onw i thout other choi ces·For i nstance,the si gn‘ ‘ 严禁吸烟一(N oSm oki ng)i ndi catesbri efl ythatsm oki ngi s forbi ddenhere;O therw i se,abadconsequencew i l l happen, suchas fi re or anexpl osi on.M oreexam pl esof thi s ki nd:禁止吸烟N oSm oki ng游客止步N oV' m i tors禁止张贴N oBi l l s请勿乱扔杂物N o Li tteri ng禁止带狗入内DogsN otAl l ow ed桥上严禁超车N o O vertaki ngO ntheBri dge止堆放易燃物品N oFl am m abl e M ateri al s禁止拍照N oCal ner& s’禁止钓鱼N oAngl i ng禁止通行N o Passi ng请勿触摸D oN ot Touch禁止打猎Shooti ngFrol m ' bi ted儿童严禁入内N oM i nors Al l ow ed卡车禁止通行N oTrucks(余富林,2003)2.2.2 Cl assi fi cati on i n term s of i nform ati on statusProfessor Lv H erasuggestedi n hi sessay Chi nese· Engl i shTransl ati on of Publ i cSi gnsthatpubl i c si gnscanbe cl assi fi ed i nto“ stati c' ’ and“ dynam i c” i nterm s of di fferent status ofl l i nform ati on thatthey provi deto thereceptor.“ Stati c"si gns gi vei nform ati on i n a stati c status.That i s,they convey i nform ati onconcerni ngservi ces and di recti on w i thout the dem and foracti on.Si gnsof thi s ki ndm aybefound i n suchpubl i c pl acesas touri st faci l i ti es,busi ness establ i shm ents,streetsandroads,etc.Forexam pl es:出租汽车停车处库站Taxi Stand/Stati on维修车辆停车处M ai ntenance Parki ng单车道桥O nel aneBri age步行街Pedestri anStreet(余富林,2003)O pposi tetothe“ stati c' ’ si gns,“ dynam i c"onesdel i ver i nform ati on i n adynam i cstatus.Publ i c si gnsof thi s ki nd serve toprom otethereceptor’ Sattenti on, SO as to restri ctorcom pelthemto takeacti on.Theyarew i del yused i n suchfi el ds雒publ i ctraffi csystem ,publ i c i nsti tuti ons;em ergencyand thel i ke.Com pared w i th‘ ' stati c” si gns,theyare l ess i nnum ber but i nore fl exi bl e i n thetransl ati on.Forexam ples:坐妥后请扣好安全带FastenSeat Bel t W hi l e Seated向右转弯Turn Ri ght通行W al k紧握扶手H ol dthe H and Rai l(余富林,2003)J udgi ngfromthe el aborati on of thi s cl assi fi cati on and theexam pl es,onecan tel l thatthe‘ ‘ stati c' ’ andthe‘ ‘ dynam i c' ’ i ndi cati onofpubl i c si gnsal ecl osel yrel ated to the fourfuncti ons aforem enti oned.Thati s,publ i c si gns servi ng di recti ngfuncti onm ai nl y provi dei nform ati on i n‘ ‘ stati c' ’ status,andi nform ati oni n‘ ‘ dynam i c' ’ statusi sconveyed by publ i c si gnsofprom oti ng,restri cti ngandcom pel l i ngfuncti on.2.3Li ngui sti cfeatures ofpubl i c si gnsAs W eknow , di fferent functi ons need di fferent l anguageform s tOconveyand eachl anguage styl e possessesi tsspeci alfeatures.N iChuanbi n( 倪传斌) andLi u Zhi (刘治)anal yzeChi nese-Engl i shTransl ati onofPubl i cSi gnsand i tsCases呐k标记语的英译原黜及实俩‘乡爹坜’ ’ publishedi nShanghaiJ ournal ofTransl atorsforSci enceand死幽刀DZ啦(倪传斌&thel anguagefeatures ofpubl i c si gnsi n thei ressay“ The Pri nci pl es for刘治,1998.2:18).Fi rstl y, the si gnsare on aboard, SOthel anguage on.the si gnsshoul d be i n conci sew aydue to thecom parati vel ysm al l space.Secondl y, som e publ i c si gnsm ust drawthepubH c’ Sattenti on at the fi rstsi ghtand the readers啪catch i tsm eani ng very qui ckl yandcorrectl y,especi al l ythe traffi c si gns,such as"AbruptTurn LeRAhead前方急转W ", the appl i edw ords shoul d besi m pl eones i nstead of rare ones.At l ast,them eani ngof thesi gns shoul dbe cl ear andeasyto react, the si gni s Set w i thoutam bi gui ty.W ecananal yzethi stopi ci ndetai l s asfoU ow i ng:2.3.1 Conci senessVi gorous w ri ti ngi s conci se.A sentence shoul d contai n nounnecessary w ords,aparagraphnounnecessary sentences,forthe sam e reason that adraw i ngshouMhave nounnecessaryl i nes and a m achi ne nounnecessary parts.Iti s al so true ofl anguageofpubl i csi gns.U sual l y, thereaders forpubl i c si gns j ust gi veaqui ckl ook at the boardw i thsi gnsonw henthey pass by.Sothel anguageon it need not be i n acom pl ete sentence, a phraseorj usta w ord i senough, for exam pl e,‘ ' N o Sm oki ng禁止吸烟’ ,,“ O pen正在营业” ,W eneednot U Sesentences‘ ‘ Pl ease do not sm oke’ ’ and‘ ‘ W e are on busi ness.’ ’The w ords w hi ch add no m orem eani ngshoul d be om i tted, W ecan cal lthemunnecessary w ords.Theycanbeany partofspeech, nouns num eral s,adj ecti ves,adverbs,and SO O i l .Forexam pl e,thel abel on ashaver, the w ords on the l abel shoul d i nformthe user that the shade of thi s shaver i svery sharp,pl easeU Se itcareful l y.W ecanshorteni nto‘ ‘ SharpShade l’ ’ .It i senoughto showthem eani ng.O n the w al l of adoorw ay, there al w aysexi sts asi gnto tel l thepubl i cnot topark anybi kes there.The Chi nesesi gncan be w ri tten as“ 门廊前勿放自行车",the Engl i shversi oncanbe“ k印thi s doorw ayfree of bi kes” ,actual l yiti s w i thout any l exi calerror orgram m ati cal error, butW e need not U Se a ful l sentence.' ' N o Bi kes” i senough.Seeanotherexam pl e,theChi nesesi gn i s“ 请勿向河中投掷垃圾” ,canw e transl ate it i nto“ Pl ease do notthrowrubbi sh i nto thi s ri ver' ’ ?If SO ,thenc龃W e throw rubbi sh not i nto thi s ri ver butbesi de thi s ri ver?Fol l ow the conci senesspri nci pl e,‘ ' N o Li tteri ng’ ’ i s enough.W eU Se‘ ' Danger:Expl osi ve"i nsteadof“ W e haveexpl osi ve here.PayaRem i on toyour safety."astheEngLi shversi onfor恤Chi nesesi gn‘ ‘ 此处有炸药,请注意安全” .2.3.2 Cl earnessD ue to the short ti m e thetargetreader canspendO nreadi ngthesi gns,the m eani ngofthesi gnsshoul d bc cl ear andeasyto be understood.As thetargetreaders are the com m onpeopl ew ho have l i ttl eknow l edgerel ated to the concernedtopi c,the si gnsshoul ddi rectl yhi t thepoi ntand there shoul d exi st nOvagueness.InN i and Li u’ Ses鼢y(倪传斌&刘治1998),they provi deanexam pl e:“ 严禁客货’ 混装(Don’ t put passengersandcargos together.)” 1ktargetreaderm ayfeelhazybecausetheydo not knoww hether it m eans thepassengerscannot take thecargosthem sel ves to the desti nati on or w hetherit m eans thepassengersareforbi dden tO si t on thecargosandtheyshoul d si t i n the cab.So thesi gn“ 严禁客货混装” shoul d betransl ated i nto‘ ' N opassengersonTrucks” .Then, readerscangetto knowthatit m eans thepassengerscan take thecargos them sel ves to the desti nati on but they areforbi dden to si t on thecargos.The si gns are set for thepubl i cand not every reader i sprofessi onal ,thereforeW ew hen transl atesi gns,w eshoul d hi t thepoi nt di rectl yandcl earl yand shoul d notj usttal k around the bush.W hether the transl ati on i saproperone i sdependedon w hethertarget readers can bceasi l ycatch i tsm eani ng,easfl y,sm oothl yandcl earl y.Thus,w henW e transl ate Chi nesepubl i c si gns,w e shoul d take note of thi s14 pri nci pl e.2.3.3Si m pl ew ordsPubl i csi gns are set for thepubl i c.Targetreaders of thi s ki ndof m ateri al s areordi narypeopl e,i ncl udi ngnotonl ythe nati veEngl i sh speakers,butal so otherforei gnersw ho knowa Li ttl eEngl i shor w hose m otherl anguagei s notEngl i sh.The targetreaders al so i ncl udeO VerSeas Chi nese,w hoi s not al lEngl i shnati vespeaker.IftheEngl i shversi on i s ful l of rarew ords andexpressi on, i tw i l l l ead to apragm ati cfai l ure of com m uni cati on.There i sal w aysa sm al l restaurant at theai rporttoprovi defast food for thepassengers,the Engl i shtabl etshoul d be‘ ' Snacks” i nsteadof“ Refect...

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