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    非英语专业大学生英语写作中的图式理论应用实证研究

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    内容提示: 非英语专业大学生英语写作中的图式理论应用实证研究TheEm pi ri cal Research on theAppl i cati onof Schem aTheory011Col l egeEngl i sh W ri ti ngofN on- Engl i sh M aj orStudents作者:导师:系别年级:学号:学科专业:完成日期:胡继禹郝钦海教授外语系2012级22012130702外国语言学及应用语言学2015年1月万方数据 TheEm pi ri cal Research on theAppl i cati onof Schem a㈣㈣㈣㈣lI|{{删Y2769726TheoryonCol l egeEngl i sh W ri ti ngofN on—Engl i sh M aj orStudentsbyH uJ i yuAThesi s Subm i ttedtoForei gn Language D epartm entIn Parti a...

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    非英语专业大学生英语写作中的图式理论应用实证研究TheEm pi ri cal Research on theAppl i cati onof Schem aTheory011Col l egeEngl i sh W ri ti ngofN on- Engl i sh M aj orStudents作者:导师:系别年级:学号:学科专业:完成日期:胡继禹郝钦海教授外语系2012级22012130702外国语言学及应用语言学2015年1月万方数据 TheEm pi ri cal Research on theAppl i cati onof Schem a㈣㈣㈣㈣lI|{{删Y2769726TheoryonCol l egeEngl i sh W ri ti ngofN on—Engl i sh M aj orStudentsbyH uJ i yuAThesi s Subm i ttedtoForei gn Language D epartm entIn Parti al Ful fi l l m ent of theRequi rem entsFor theD egreeofM aster ofArtsInLi ngui sti candAppl i ed Li ngui sti csSupervi sorProf.H aoQ i nhaiCapi tal U ni versi tyof Econom i cs and Busi nessJ an.2015万方数据 本人郑重声明:所呈交的学位论文,是本人在导师的指导下,独立进行研究工作所取得的成果。除文中已经注明引用的内容外,本论文不含任何其他个人或集体已经发表或撰写过的作品或成果,也不包含为获得首都经济贸易大学或其他教育机构的学位或证书撰写的或使用过的材料。对本文的研究做出重要贡献的个人和集体,均已在论文中以明确方式标明。本声明的法律结果由本人承担。论文作者签名:调谐禹日期:∞,蛑∥ 月,2日本人完全了解首都经济贸易大学关于收集、保存、使用学位论文的规定,即:按照学校要求提交学位论文的印刷本和电子版本;学校有权保存学位论文的印刷本和电子版,并提供目录检索与阅览服务;学校可以采用影印、缩印、数字化或其它复制手段保存论文:在不以赢利为目的的前提下,学校可以公布论文的部分或全部内容。论文作者签名:胡砸溺日期:~tS"年6月, ' 243导师签名:石{}妲蚜日期:加K年f』月f调万方数据 Acknow l edgm entsAfter thecom pl eti onof thi s thesi s,I coul d nothel p thi nki ng of thehel pandadvi ce recei ved f romm ydear teachers and al so thesupportf romm y fri ends andparentsi ntheprocessofw ri ti ngthi s thesi s.M y deepest grati tude goesfi rst and forem osttom y supervi sor, ProfessorH aoQ i nhai ,forhi s constant encouragem entandgui dance。1amgratefulto hi mfor hi sreadi ngofm ydrafts.W i thout hi si l l um i nati ng i nstructi on,thi sthesi s coul d not havereached i tspresent form .Second,1w oul d l i ke toexpress m yheartfel tgrati tudetoProfessor G aoQ i upi ng,ProfessorZhu Anbo and ProfessorZhang H ongfeng.Theyhavehel pedm e a l ot i n thepastthreeyears.Last, m ythanks w oul dgotom ybel ovedparentsfor thei rgreatconfi dence i n Il qeal lthroughtheseyears.Ial so ow em ysi nceregrati tudetom yfri ends andm y fel l owcl assm ates w hohel pm e w ork outm y probl em s duri ngthe course ofw ri ti ngthethesi s.万方数据 AbstractEngl i sh w ri ti ngi s consi dered to be oneof thekey goalofcol l ege Engl i sh teachi ng.W i th the al l · round reformofcol l ege Engl i shcourse i n theseyears,Engl i sh teachi nghasbeengi vena ful lattenti on.Engl i shteachersstri ve todesi gna set ofappropri ate Engl i shw ri ti ng teachi ng approachbased onstudents’ features andreal i ty.Asa m atter offact, m ostof theseapproachesareeffecti vel y desi gnedf rom theperspecti vesof howtoi m provestudents’ w ri ti ngscores and howtovarythei r habi ts ofEngl i sh w ri ti ng,Teachers al w ayshel pstudentspracti sem oreEngl i sh w ri ti ng.H ow ever, students frequentl yfai l tounderstandand m aster theapproaches taught by teachers,asaresul t of w hi chthey keeponsel ecti ngsom e tradi ti onall earni ng approaches.For exam pl e,m ostof themadopttheapproachofreci ti nga great am ount ofw ri ti ng sam pl esof examtoi m provethei rw ri ti ngski l l s.Iti sadm i red that thi s approachCani ndeed m ake students get m ore scores i n exam ,but i t i sveryhard to enhancestudents’ practi cal w ri ti ng abi l i ty.Fromtheangl eofcogni ti ve theory, the schem a theory pays m ore attenti on to theappl i cati onofstudents’ cogni ti vestructure onl anguage acqui si ti on.Throughoutthehi storyof the research on the schem a theory, i thas beenbroadl y appl i edi nEngl i sh readi ngandl i steni ng teachi ng,butthe researches of i tsappl i cati ononEngl i sh w ri ti ng teachi ngareveryrare,especi al l ythe research onappl i cati onof thel i ngui sti c schem a, organi zati onschem aandcontent schem a onEngl i sh w ri ti ng teachi ng.Inthi s thesi s,the author tri es toappl ythesethree schem ata i nEngl i shteachi ngtheoryand to m ake ful l use of the schem ata to sti m ul atetheschem a i n students’ brai ns.Thi s thesi s ai m s atdoi nga research on w hether the acti vati on of the schem ata i nstudents’ brai ns carl i m prove students’ w ri ti ngski l l s or not.The author chooses 80 studentsof tw o cl asses of sophom ore m aj ori ngi n Internati onal Trade f romSchool ofEconom i cs,CU EB and Internati onal H um an Resource f rom Schoolresearchsubj ects.Thetw ocl asses areseparatel ynam edexperi m entcl ass andcontrol cl ass.of Labor Econom i cs,CU EBasIn controlcl ass,theteacheradoptstradi ti onalw ri ti ng approach,w hi l ei nexperi m ent cl ass,the teacheradoptsschem a-ori entedcom prehensi ve teachi ng approach.Beforethe 15- w eeki n· cl assteachi ng,theauthorfi rstl ytests outstudents’ appl i cati on abi l i tyofl i ngui sti c schem a,organi zati onschem a and content schem a bym eans ofpre—test.Andthen the author usesquesti onnai retogetstudents’ atti tude on schem a-ori entedapproach,SOthat the teacher Canl l万方数据 adoptal lappropri ate teachi ng strategyi n the fol l ow i ng teachi ng process.D uri ng the15一w eek i n-cl assteachi ng process,theauthor fi rstadoptsavari etyofteachi ng approachesto cul ti vate students’ three schem ata, after w hi ch he m akesuse ofthe approachofbrai nstorm i ngto sti m ul ate students’ schem ata that haveal readyexi sted i n thei r brai ns andencouragethemtograspthe w hol e structure of theessay.At l ast, the author tests out theteachi ngeffect andstudents’ feel i ng bym eans ofpost-testand i ntervi ew .Incom pari sontoexperi m ent cl ass,thecontrol cl assadoptstradi ti onalteachi ng approach,w hi chcom pri sesofteachi ngbasi c l i ngui sti c know l edge,m em ori zi ng w ri ti ng sam pl esandi m i tati ngetc.Them ai nsi gni fi canceof thi sstudyi s to search for al l effecti vew aytochange students’ w ri ti ngconsci ousness and m oti vati on f rompassi ve processto acti veprocessand to m ake l eam ers’pri orscatteredknow l edgei n thei r brai ns becom e asystem ati c cogni ti ve structure i n thew ri ti ng process.Thi s thesi s anal yzestheexperi m ent data、Ⅳi th the toolof SPSS 21,0.ThroughtheIndependentSam pl eT-Test and Pai red Sam pl e T-Test,the rel ati onshi p betw een thecl ass and the control cl ass w i l l be tested out.Inaddi ti on,students’ atti tudesexperi m enttow ards newEngl i shteachi ng approachCanbeal so know nby m eans of i ntervi ew .After theexperi m ent, theauthorgetsthree concl usi onsaccordi ngto the three researchquesti ons respecti vel y.Fi rstl y, basedon the resul tof i ntervi ew , m ore than hal f of thestudents haveaffi rm ati ve andposi ti veatti tude tow ards the schem a- ori entedteachi ngapproach.Secondl y,i n com pari sonto the tradi ti onalapproach,theschem a-ori entedteachi ngapproach Can i ndeed i m prove students’ w ri ti ng scores.Andthi rdl y, am ongthethreedi fferent schem ata, form al schem a Cani m provestudents’ scores m ost i n a shortperi od,andthe content schem a ranks thesecond,w hi l ethel i ngui sti cschem a ranks last.KeyW ords:schem atheory, w ri ti ng teachi ng,acti vati on,em pi ri cal study万方数据 摘要进入二十一世纪以来,我国大学英语课程经历了历史性的变革,英语教学,尤其是高校英语写作教学,在各大学校园被给予了全面深层次的重视。各高校英语教师都会力求根据学生的实际情况和特点,为学生制定出一套具有针对性的英语写作教学法。事实上,这些方法大部分是从如何提高学生写作分数,改变学生写作习惯的角度出发,而且在一定程度上都是非常有效的。教师通常会通过加大课堂英语写作的教学力度,为学生提供更多的练习机会。虽然如此,但很多时候学生并不能很好地理解、掌握教师所教授的英语写作方法。依旧会采用一些传统的学习方法。例如,很多学生会采取“ 背课文、范文” 的应试方法提高个人写作能力。尽管这样可以在一定程度上丰富英语语言表达种类,提高写作分数,但是对于学习者真实英语写作能力却起不到较好的提升作用。近年来,认知学中的图式理论受到越来越多的学者的关注,该理论关注学生认知结构在英语学习过程中的所起到的作用。纵观图式理论应用研究,虽然不在少数,但是大部分研究主要集中在语言听力及阅读理解方面,其在英语写作方面的应用研究还鲜有人做,如三种图式( 即语言图式,形式图式和内容图式) 应用于学生写作教学及其对于学生写作能力提升的作用。本文的主要研究对象,就是将这三种图式应用于英语教学过程中,刺激语言习得者大脑中的匿有圈式,从雨提高学生的英语写作能力。本文主要研究刺激习得者的大脑中的固有图式是否可以提升习得者英语写作水平。本研究以首都经济贸易大学经济学院及劳动经济学院大二年级两个班的80名学生为研究对象,并将两个班分为实验组和对照组。在实验组采用图式教学法教授学生,在对照组则采用传统教学法进行授课。在进行课堂实验教学前,作者先通过实验前测了解学生对于三种图式的应用能力,然后再用设计好的问卷调查学生对于大学英语写作的普遍看法及态度,这样以帮助作者在后期教学过程中选取适当的方法及策略。在15周的时间内,作者会采用各种教学手段,如阅读,听力,英美文化知识介绍等,来培养三种图式。此外,还将运用头脑风暴的课堂讨论形式刺激学生的固有图式,并鼓励学生从整体的角度分析和理解文章结构。最终,在学期结束时,作者将安排后测再次对学生对于三种图式的应用能力进行测试并进行访谈,并由此来检验图式教学法的效果。相较而言,对照组将采用传统的课堂语言教学法,包括教授写作常识,语言知识,课文背诵,模拟写作等。本文的主要意义在于寻找一种提升学生写作意识的有效方法,将学生固有的被动写作意识转变为主动写作意识。并帮助学生规划整理大脑中的先前经验知识,将其转化为写作过程中系统的认知结构。作者将运用SPSS 21.0对文章中出现的数据进行计算分析。并选取独立样本T检万方数据 验以及配对样本T检验两个标准来对比两个组的测试结果。除此之外,作者还将与被试学生进行访谈对话,以了解学生最真实的对于图式教学法的态度与感受。实验结束后,作者根据实验前提出的三个研究问题得到了相应的三个结论。首先,根据对实验班被试学生的访谈分析,超过一半的学生认为图式教学法在写作方面能够给他们带来积极的促进作用。其次,相较于传统教学法,图式教学法可以确实提升学生写作能力。最后,三种图式中,形式图式可以在短时间内最有效地提高学生的英语分数,然后是内容图式,而语言图式效果相比是最不明显的。关键词:图式理论;写作教学;刺激;实证研究万方数据 Tabl e of ContentsAcknow l edgm ents⋯ .⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ iAbstract i nEnglish.........⋯..⋯⋯⋯⋯......⋯....⋯..⋯.⋯...⋯⋯⋯⋯...........⋯..⋯..⋯..⋯.....⋯⋯⋯.⋯......⋯.⋯........iiAbstract i nChi nese⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .i VTabl eofContents⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .ViChapter O neIntroducti on⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ..11.1BackgroundoftheStudy⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .11.2PurposeoftheStudy⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ..21.3Si gni fi canceofthe Study⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .31.4 O utl i ne oftheStudy⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 4ChapterTw o2.1 Rel evant Studi es onW ri ti ng Teachi ngApproaches⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 5Li teratureReview..⋯.⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯.....⋯⋯..⋯...⋯............⋯⋯⋯.......⋯............⋯.........⋯⋯.⋯⋯..52.1.1 ProductApproach⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .52.1.2ProcessApproach⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .72.1.3G enreApproach⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .82.1.4 Com m ents on theThreeApproaches⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ l O2.2Schem aApproachtoEngl i shW ri ti ng⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯.⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯102.2.1 Introducti onto Schem aTheory⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .j ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 112.2.2 The Cl assi fi cati on ofSchem a⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ..122.2.2.】Li ngui sti c Schem a⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ..132.2.2.2 Form al Schem a⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .132.2。2。3Content Schem a⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ,⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 。。132.2.3 nl eN ecessi ty of Appl yi ngSchem aTheorytOW ri ti ng⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯。142.2.4Pri orResearches on Schem aTheoryi nW ri ti ng⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯.15ChapterThrecM ethodology,...............⋯.........,..........⋯⋯⋯.⋯⋯......⋯.............,⋯..........,⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯...183.1Q uesti onsoftheStudy⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 一⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ..183。2 ResearchParti ci pants⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯..183.3Research Instrum ents⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ..193.3.1Q uesti onnai re⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯193r3.2W nt-m gTests⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯193.3.3 Intervi ew ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 203.4Teachi ng Strategi esi nSchem aApproach。。⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯。⋯⋯⋯..。.⋯..。....,,.,..........。,.,,.,⋯.⋯⋯⋯,⋯⋯.。。213.5 Research Procedures⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 223.5.1Q uesti onnai re⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯.⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯..223.5.2 Pre-l est⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .233.5.3Teachi ngProcess⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 233.53,1.Ihe M ai nProcedures i nExperi m ent Cl ass⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯.233.5.3.2 The M ai n Procedure i n the ControlCl ass⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 一⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 243.5.3.3 T11e M ai n D i fferences betw eenSchem aApproachand Tradi ti onal Approach⋯⋯.253.5.4 Postdest⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ,⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 26ChapterFourD ataAnal ysi sand Results............⋯.⋯........⋯......⋯....⋯⋯⋯⋯....⋯............⋯............⋯.....274.1 TheAnal ysi softheQ uesti onnai re⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯一⋯⋯⋯⋯一⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯...274.2 TheAnal ysi softhe Pre-test i nBoth Cl asses⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯.⋯⋯.30vj万方数据 4.3 TheAnal ysi softhe Post-test i n BothCl asses⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .344.4 TheCom pari sonbetw eenthe Pre.test and Post-test⋯..⋯..,...。.。....。。.。,.⋯⋯。⋯⋯..,。..。⋯。..⋯..⋯..⋯,。.374.4.1 TheCom pari sonbetw een the Tw o Tests i n theExperi m ent Cl ass⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 374.4.2 TIl eCom pari sonbetw een the Tw o Tests i n theCongol Cl ass⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯.384.5D i scussi on ontheResul ts ofQ uesti onnai reand TestS⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 404.6 TheInterviewAnalysis.⋯⋯⋯⋯.⋯........⋯.........⋯⋯..⋯.⋯....⋯...⋯........⋯⋯⋯⋯..........⋯....⋯..⋯...42ChapterFi veConclusions......⋯..⋯.,,..⋯。。........⋯⋯。........,。⋯⋯.⋯...,.。⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯。..。。⋯.。.⋯....。。。⋯。⋯..⋯⋯.455.1M aj or Fi ndi ngs⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ..⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 455.2Im pl i cati onsto FutureW ri ti ng Teachi ng⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 一465.3 Li m i tati ons ofthe Experi m ent⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯⋯48References.⋯......⋯⋯⋯.⋯...⋯.⋯.⋯......⋯.......⋯⋯⋯.⋯............⋯.⋯.....⋯⋯.⋯⋯..⋯.................⋯..⋯.⋯⋯..⋯.50Appendi xI⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 5zlAppendi xII............⋯.⋯⋯.⋯⋯⋯⋯...........................⋯..⋯..⋯⋯...⋯....⋯..⋯.........⋯.....⋯⋯⋯..⋯..⋯...⋯.......55万方数据 ChapterO neIntroducti onW i th thedevel opm entof thi ssoci ety, thecom m uni cati onam ongdi fferent countri esand nati onal i ti es w i th di fferent cul turalbackgroundsbecom es m orefrequent, w hi l eoursoci etyhas m ore and m orerequi rem entson thepeopl ew i thhi gh Engl i sh l anguageprofi ci encyandcom petence.Asaresul t,howtoeffi ci entl y i m prove students’Engl i shcom m uni cati ve ski l l and howto transfer theEngl i sh l anguagefroma formthatsi m pl yrequi resl earner to conti nuousl yl earn andpracti sebasi c l anguage know l edgei nto afuncti onalsystemthat hel psthe l earner real i ze vari ous com m uni cati onpurposes havebecom e ahottopi ci n the ci rcl e ofl anguage teachi ngboth at hom e andabroad.H ow ever,am ongal l thel anguage l earni ng aspects,w ri ti ngi s the m ost accurate andthe m ost effi ci entw ayto eval uatestudents’ l anguage com petence.W hetherto l earner’ Sl earni ng processor toteacher’ Steachi ng process,the Engl i sh w ri ti ngi sal w aysconsi dered to be a w eakpart.Despi tethe fact thatm anyefforts and achi evem ents has been m ade on the researches onsecondl anguage w ri ti ngabi l i ti es i n thepast decades,the presentsi tuati on of Chi nesecol l ege students’ w ri ti ng com petencei s notopti m i sti c.Thi sthesi s i s carri ed out to fi nd outa better and m ore effecti vew ayto teachEngl i shw ri ti ngfor Chi nese col l ege students.Inthi s thesi s,thew ri terproposesa newm odeltoEngl i sh w ri ti ng teachi ng,thati s,theappl i cati onof schem atheorytoEngl i sh w ri ti ng.1.1Backgroundof theStudyTheEngl i sh w ri ti ng abi l i tyi ssupposedto be a coreabi l i ty em phasi zedi nforei gnl anguage teachi ng process.Inthe i nternati onal secondl anguage acqui si ti on(SLA)ci rcl e,m anyresearches have been carri ed out on SLA w hi ch has al so draw n agreatam ount ofattenti on.Si nce thevery begi nni ngi n 1960s,the depthand the w i dth of the research onSLA areconti nuousl y expandi ng.Thereare not onl y m anyresearchers doi ngrel evantstudi eson SLA,but al so vari ous academ i c sem i nars on secondl anguage w ri ti ngandrel evant academ i cj oum al s,suchas J ournalofSecondLanguage W ri ti ng publ i shedi n theU SA.U ptonow , thei nternati onal research on secondl anguage w ri ti ng m ai nl yfocuses onthefol l ow i ngfourfi el ds( Archi bal d& J effcry, 2000;Atki nson,2003;M atsuda,2003;M atsuda eta1.,2003):1)theresearch on the secondl anguage w ri ti ng process,i ncl udi ngcogni ti ve operati on m odel ,w ri ti ng concepti on strategy, thei ndi vi dualdi fference of万方数据 l earners andthe chance ofw ri ti ng processi n di fferentstages;2)theresearch on the secondl anguage w ri ti ng resul t,i ncl udi ngtextanal ysi s,error anal ysi s,contrasti ve anal ysi s,contrasfi ve rhetori calanal ysi s andcorpus anal ysi s;3)theresearchon secondl anguagew ri ti ng envi ronm ent,i ncl udi ngsoci alstructure,regi ster anal ysi sand i ndi vi dual di fferenceanal ysi son know l edge,m oti vati onandrequi rem ents;4)theresearch on secondl anguagew ri ti ng teachi ng,i ncl udi ng l earni ng process,l earni ngstrategy, l anguageski l ldevel opm ent,i n-cl assteachi ng processandw ri ti ngtests etc.Am ongal l these four hot research fi el ds,the research on secondl anguage w ri ti ngteachi nghasbeen concentrated onbyschol ars andEngl i shteachers forqui teal ong peri od,w hi l e i n thi s researchfi el d,teachi ngm ethod i s one of them aj orfactors that i nfl uencesstudents’ w ri ti ngprofi ci ency.Si nce20years ago,occi dental l i ngui stsand schol arsbegantoputforw ard al argeam ount of researches rel ated toforei gn l anguage w ri ti ng teachi ng.D uri ngthi sprocess,acertai n num ber of newteachi ng approachesw erecreated,am ongw hi chthreem aj orones ofEngl i sh w ri ti ngteachi ngw erebroughti n andprevai l edi n Chi na:i ncl udi ng product approach,process approachandgenre approach.Al lof these threeapproacheshave thei r ow n features and havegreat i m pacton thefol l ow i ng studyonforei gn l anguage w ri ti ng teachi ng,especi al l y Engl i shone.Al thoughthese threeapproacheshave takenupal li m portant posi ti on throughoutthehi story, theresti l l exi sts acom m onprobl em :theyal lnegl ectthefact that l earners’ di fferenti ndi vi dualknow l edgestructure m ayi nfl uence thei rw ri ti ngl evel .W i ththedevel opm entofcogni ti ve sci ence,theschem a theoryi sgradual l y appl i edto the research ofEngl i sh w ri ti ngi n order to sol ve thi sprobl em .Theoreti cal l y speaki ng,w ri ti ngCanbe defi ned as aprocessthat i ntegrates w ri ters’ previ ous schem ata(i ndi vi dual know l edge structure),w ri ti ng topi candw ri ti ngi tsel f.The functi on of schem a i s to offer the w ri ters rel evant know l edgeonw ri ti ngformand content.It i spossi bl etosaythat theageofadopti ngschem atheoryonEngl i shw ri ti ngteachi ngi sj ustaroundthe com er.1.2Purposeof theStudyInthi s thesi s,the author ai m s atsearchi ngaw ay to acti vate thosenon- Engl i shm aj orstudents’schem ata i n thei r brai ns andprovi ngthat schem atheoryCanbri ngbenefi ts tostudents’ Engl i sh w ri ti ngski l l s.Before the schem a theory i sappl i edtow ri ti ng,m anyschol arsw i del y adoptedi t to do researchonl i steni ngandreadi ng,andthere i s notSOm uch2万方数据 studi escom bi ni ngi t w i thw ri ti ng.Inorder toexpl oreanewdi recti on for theappl i cati onofthe schem atheory, theauthorappl i esthe schem atheorytoEngl i sh w ri ti ngi n thi sthesi s,for thepurposeofenhanci ng students’ w ri ti ng abi l i tyf romtheangl eofcogni ti vesci ence.The author concentrates onacti vati ngstudents’ threeschem ata, i ncl udi ng l i ngui sti c,form aland content schem a i nEngl i sh w ri ti ng process.Thi s em pi ri calstudyw i l ladoptbothqual i tati veandquanti tati vem ethods to fi nd out the m ost effecti vew ayto acti vate students’schem ata andanal yzethe effects of schem atheoryonEngl i sh w ri ti ng.1.3Si gni fi canceof theStudyThe m ai nsi gni fi canceof thi sstudyi sto search foran effecti vew aytochangestudents’ w ri ti ngconsci ousness and m oti vati on f rompassi ve processto acti veprocessandto m ake l earners’ pri orscatteredknow l edgei n thei r brai ns becom e asystem ati c cogni ti vestructure i n thew ri ti ng process.Theoreti cal l y speaki ng,throughoutthehi storyofEngl i shw ri ti ng teachi ng,onl ya f ewresearchers focused on theappl i cati onof the schem atheorytoEngl i sh w ri ti ng teachi ng,w hi l ethe research on theappl i cati onof the l i ngui sti c schem a,organi zati onschem a andcontent schem a arerarer.So,theresearch on theappl i cati onofthe three schem ata toEngl i sh w ri ti ngi s consi deredvery si gni fi cant.Fromtheperspecti veofpracti ce,thenewschem aapproachal so overcom es acertai n am ount ofshortcom i ngsofthetradi ti onal one.W i th tradi ti onalapproach,teachersoften attachi m portancetol i ngui sti cknow l edgeof thew ri ti ng m ateri al s,suchas vocabul ary, sentence,gram m ar etc.,andal w aysforce students topassi vel ytakeEngl i sh w ri ti ng cl ass,w hi l e theyal soputm oreem phasi son the fi nal w ri ti ng w ork,as opposedto thew ri ti ng process.N everthel ess,forgai ni ngandpossessi ngm ore usefulknow l edgefor the l aterw ri ti ng,thestudentso.ghttospendm ore ti m e on extensi vei nputfromal l ki ndsofl i ngui sti c m ateri al s.N unan(1991:38)has ever sai d w i 出the sartl em eani ngthat‘ "In theEngl i shw ri ti ng process。thew ri ters do al argeam ounthave l earned w i th w hat theyare fam iliarw i th' ’ .Apart f romthese,the com m uni cati onof constructi ve andi nterpretati vew ork i n w hi chtheycom bi ne w hat theybetw eenstudents and teacher i s al sosupposedto bestrengthened.Therefore,thetradi ti onalEngl i sh w ri ti ng teachi ngm ethod cannot catchupw i th suchw ri ti ng requi rem ents,andam ore reasonabl e and sci enti fi c schem a- theory- based approach,w hi ch l aysm ore stressupon w ri ti ng process,com esi ntobei ng.In thi s thesi s,the author i ntends to seek a feasi bl e and reasonabl eEngl i sh w ri ti ng万方数据 teachi ng m ode based on the schem atheory, SOas to avoi d the draw backs i n tradi ti onalteachi ng approachandi m prove students’ w ri ti ng ski l l s andabi l i ty.After the research i sdone,the w ri ter w i l lal sogi vesom e educati onal andpedagogi calsuggesti onstoEngl i shw ri ti ngcl ass.1.4 O utl i ne of theStudyThi s thesi scom pri sesof fi vechaptersto achi eve the researchpurpose,w hi chi s thefeasi bi l i tyandeffecti veness of schem aw ri ti ng teachi ng approach.hl the fi rstchapter, theauthorgi vesa bri ef i ntroducti on of the w hol ethesi s,i ncl udi ngthebackground,purpose,si gni fi canceandtheoutl i ne ofthe thesi s.Inchapter tw o,the authorm ai nl yrevi ew s rel evant theori es and studi es onEngl i shw ri ti ng teachi ngand thedevel opm ent processof schem atheory.H efi rst i ntroduces thethreeapproachesofw ri ti ng teachi ng,i ncl udi ng product approach,process approachandgenre approach,andm akes further expl anati onson these three approaches.Then herevi ew s thedevel opm entand the statusquoof schem atheory, asw el l as i tsappl i cati oni nEngl i shstudi es.Thi schapter provi desa theoreti calbasi s for thefol l ow i ng chaptersandi m proves readers’com prehensi onofthe enti re research.The nextchapteri s a detai l eddescri pti onof them ethodol ogy.The authorcareful l ystates al l thestepsand detai l s i n theexperi m ent,i ncl udi ngresearchquesti ons,researchparti ci pants,research i nstrum ents,proceduresand SO on.Furtherm ore,thi s chapteral soi ntroduces the newteachi ng approach,w hi chi s on the basi s of schem atheoryandappl i edtoexperi m ent cl ass,as w el l as the tradi ti onalteachi ng approach appl i edto control cl ass.Chapterfour i s used to di scuss both thequanti tati veandqual i tati veresul ts obtai nedfromthepre—testandpost-tests,questi onnai resandi ntervi ew s.Accordi ngto the resul ts,w ecom e to know thatthe schem aw ri ti ng teachi ng approachi s qui teconduci ve to theparti ci pants.In addi ti on,thethree researchquesti onsw i l l al so be answ ered i n thi schapter.In thi s l astChapter, theauthor concl udes hi sm aj or fi ndi ngsand l i m i tati ons for hi sresearch andexperi m ent,asw el l as som epedagogi c i m pl i cati onsandsuggesti onsto theEngl i sh w ri ti ng teachi ngi nthe future.4万方数据 ChapterTw oLi terature Revi ew2.1 Rel evant Studi es onW ri ti ng Teachi ng ApproachesAs theappl i ed l i ngui sti cs devel ops,the w ri ti ng teachi nghasgradual l ytakenupasi gni fi cant pl ace.Inthepast years,l i ngui sts andschol ars’ expl orati ononw ri ti ng teachi ngapproachhas neverstoppedand agreat changehas al so occurred on the di recti on of theresearch onw ri ti ng teachi ng approaches.Throughoutthedevel opm ent hi storyofw ri ti ngteachi ng,theteachi ngapproachhasgradual l yandenorm ousl ychangedf romproduct—ori entedone toprocess—ori ented one.D uri ngthi schange process,dozensofschol arsand teachersdevoted them sel vestocreati nga rel ati vel y reasonabl eandpracti cabl e w ri ti ng teachi ng approach.Invi ew of the di fferent students and di fferentthi nki ngpatterns,the teachi ng approaches varyfrompersontoperson,thati s tosay, al m osteveryteacher’ S m ethod i s di fferent f romothers’.H ow ever, despi tethe w i devari etyofteachi ng approaches,onl ythree m ai nstreamonesprevai l edi n thepast decades,w hi chareproduct approach,process approachandgenre approach.Accordi ngto the hi stori calvi ew poi nt, the product approachi n 1940s and theprocess approachi n 1970s havepl ayedthel eadi ng rol e i n w ri ti ng teachi ngi n EFL cl assroomforqui te al ong ti m e,especi al l yi nthat of Chi na.In recentyears,anewapproachnam edgenre approachhas gradual l ya:f仃actedw i despreadi nterest i n the fbrei gIl l anguage w ri ti ng teachi ngfi el d notonl yi nocci dentalcountri es,butal so i n Chi na.It assum es thatw ri ti ngi s theexpl i ci t teachi ngofthe conventi onalw ri tten di scourses oftarget com m uni ty.Inthefol l ow i ng part,the authorw i l l beengagedi nrespecti vel y descri bi ngthe threeteachi ng approachesi n detai l s.2.1.1 ProductApproachTheproduct approachhas beenthoughtas the m ost tradi ti onal andpopul ar w ri ti ngteachi ng approachi n the fi el d ofw ri ti ngfor al ong peri od.Thi s approachfi rst deri ves fromthe behavi ori st theory, w hi ch usessti m ul us—responserei nforcem ent m odel toexpl m nanddi scuss al lcreatures’ behavi ors.Therefore,basedon thi stheory, oncethe studentS aregi vensuffi ci entw ri ti ng practi ce,w hi chcan be defi nedassti m ul us,theoreti cal l y theyaresupposedto w ri te a certai n am ount ofpassages natural l yandeasi l y, w hi chcal l be defi nedasresponse.Andthe w hol eprocessi s abl e to be treated as asti m ul us—response acti vi tyf汪5万方数据 燕霞,2011:89).Inthepracti cal w ri ti ngcl ass,w i ththeproduct approachteachersusual l yshowsom esam pl e w ri ti ngsfor the students tofol l ow , before theydeci de w hatto w ri te.M oreover, thi s approachal sorequi resteacher to attach m orei m portanceto thel i ngui sti caccuracygram m ati cal rul es etc.W hen thecom posi ti oni scom pl eted,teachersw i l l correct andgi veandappropri ateness,i ncl udi ngusageofvocabul aryandphrases,tense,m arks to i t.O n thew hol e,thi s approachconcentrates m ore onl earners’ grasponl i ngui sti ccorrectness andaccuracyrather than thew ri ti ng processof thepassage,andi t actual l yregards w ri ti ngas aprocessofoutputofthei nputi m i tati on.For the betterunderstandi ngof theproduct approach,thecol l creteproceduresof theapproachi s l i sted out as fol l ow s:1.Fam i l i afi zati onTeacher fi rst sel ects asam pl e w ri ti ngw ork for students toanal yzenot onl yi tsusageof w ord andexpressi on,butal so thesentence structure andgram m ati cal features.Thi s stepw i l l be conduci ve to the students’ futurei m i tati on of thi sspeci fi c sam pl e w ri ti ng.2.Control l edw ri ti ngIn thi sstep,teacherstarts to i nstruct students to dom ore exerci ses onw ri ti ng,w hi chi ncl ude sentencecom pl eti on practi ce,di cto-com popracti ce,adapti on practi ceandsentence-paragraphw ri ti ng practi ceetc.3.G ui dedw ri ti ngTeachergui desstudents to w ri te the fi rst draft w i th thegi ventopi c,andm ake themhand i n the drafts for hi scorrecti ngandm arki ng.4.Freew ri ti ngAfter thew ri ti ng practi ceandtrai ni ng,studentsw i l lgetto knowhowto w ri te agoodcom posi ti on.Inthi s teachi ngapproach,teacher’ Srol ei sto provi destudentsw i thl i ngui sti cknow l edgeor rel ated i nstructi ons for thei rw ri ti ng processas oneof the com m uni cati veaS asi m pl el i nearacti vi ty.Throughoutthepassi vel yrecei ve teachers’ teachi ng,andthere i s no chance for teacher to knowstudents’thoughtsorprobl em sO i lEngl i shw ri ti ng.Inaddi ti on,nei ther betw een students andteacherl aterw ri ti ng,butas opposedtotreati ngtheacti vi ti es i ncl ass,thi s approachj ust regardsi tw hol ew ri ti ng process,studentsal l the ti m enoram ongstudents,fewcom m uni cati on or i nteracti onexi sts unti l thecom pl eti onof thei rw ri ti ngw orks,w hi ch onl yrecei ve teacher’ s si ngl eeval uati on and correcti on.6万方数据 Afternearl y 20yearssi nce theappearanceof theproduct approach, i t beganto bechal l enged by m anyschol ars andexperts for i ts l oweffi ci ency and too m uch sIress onl i ngui sti c know l edgeand fi nalproducti n thew ri ti ng teachi ng process.Asa m atter offact,m ost ofthecri ti ci sm s andcom m ents on thi sapproachare addressed to the underesti m ati onof龇thew ri ti ng ski l l s.1i kechoosi ng topi csandpl anni ngthe structure of text and i tscontent.W i th theproduct approach, m ostof the students m ake ful l use of thei r exi sti ngl i ngui sti c know l edgetocom pl etethei rw ri ti ngw orks w i thoutpayi ngattenti on to textual orcul turalknow l edge,hencethei rcom posi ti ons’contents seem s not to be too ri ch.and恤text structure not to be w el lorgani zed.Apartf romthe cri ti ci sm s on thew ri ti ng ski l l s, thei nteracti ve functi on ofw ri ti ng process al so l acksnecessary attenti on.Students focus m oreon thei r ow nw ri ti ngw orks w i thoutaski ngteacher or other students for som especi fi candusefulgui dance.111spi te of thel ong- termconti nuouscri ti ci sm s,i ti s adm i tted that theproductapproachhasi ndeedpl ayedani m portantrol e i nthew ri ti ng teachi ngfi el d forqui teal ongti m e.By appl yi ngthi sapproach,students are al l ow ed to recei verel ati vel y adequatel i ngui sti c i nputand suffi ci entpracti ceof draftw ri ti ng.Inthe m eanti m e,students w i l l al soknow w el labout how tOcom poseasam pl e-l i kearti cl e w i th thehel pof m odeltexti m i tati on.2.1.2 ProcessApproachG i ven thel i m i tati ons and the draw backs of theproduct approach,schol ars andteachers i ntend to seek for a m ore effi ci entEngl ...

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